Sportswell: Producers of Natural Dietary Supplements to Improve Your Life
Angiogenesis - that is the growth of blood vessels has been recently intensively researched in New Zealand. Deer velvet grows at up to 2cm per day. This means that all support tissues, including blood vessels must also grow at that rate. The question is how can they do this? Is it possible that deer velvet possesses unique factors which can allow blood vessels to grow that fast.
One way of showing that a substance causes blood vessel
growth is to test it on fertilised chickens's eggs. As the chicken embryo
develops in the egg, blood vessels grow out and surround the egg white.
It is possible to treat small areas with test substances; those that
reduce blood vessel growth will leave a space, those that stimulate
blood vessel growth will cause an increase in the density of blood vessels.
Extracts from deer velvet have been shown to increase the number of
A second way of showing that deer velvet causes blood
vessels to grow is to take small pieces of adult deer arteries and put
them in tissue culture. You can then add test substances and see if
they cause outgrowths. Deer velvet extracts clearly showed filamentous
threads of new blood vessels growing out from the artery. This means
that the deer velvet extract causes new blood vessels to grow.
Taking these results together it is clear that there are
factors in deer velvet which promote blood vessel growth. There are
likely to be therapeutic properties, for example in tissue repair and
Deer velvet is unique in that it is the only mammalian
organ to fully regenerate each year. It follows that there are likely
to be unique factors which are responsible for this property.
It can be concluded that there are novel factors in deer
velvet, which are not present elsewhere in the body. These factors could
be markers for deer velvet in dietary supplements or be novel action
ingredients for new supplements.
Exploring the mechanisms regulating regeneration of deer antlers.
London, UK: Royal Society.
The effects of elk velvet antler consumption on the
rat: development, behavior, toxicity and the activity of liver gamma
Moreau,-M; Dupuis,-J; Bonneau,-N-H; Lecuyer,-M
Canadian-Veterinary-Journal. 2004; 45(2): 133-139.
A powder of quality elk velvet antler (QEVA) was evaluated
on client-owned dogs with osteoarthrosis (OA) in a clinical, double-blind,
and placebo-controlled study. Thirteen dogs received a placebo for 30
days and then QEVA for 60 days. Twenty-five other dogs received QEVA
for 60 days. Gait analysis measured with a force plate, clinical signs
assessed by an orthopedic surgeon, performances in daily life activities
and vitality assessed by the owners, and complete blood analyses were
obtained at days 0, after 30 days of placebo and/or 60 days of QEVA.
On placebo, the 13 dogs did not show significant improvement (P<0.05);
however, their gait, their performances in daily life activities, and
their vitality were significantly improved on QEVA, based on changes
in values exceeding those observed when placebo was administered. The
25 dogs on QEVA for 60 days showed similar improvements. No clinical
changes were revealed on blood analyses. Administration of QEVA was
effective in alleviating the condition in arthritic dogs.
Effect of deer antler drink supplementation on blood
pressure blood glucose and lymphocyte DNA damage in type 2 diabetic
Kim-HyeYoung; Jeon-EunJae; Park-YooKyoung; Kang-MyungHee
Korean-Journal-of-Nutrition. 2004; 37(9): 794-800.
Barling,-P-M; Liu-Hong; Matich,-J; Mount,-J; Lai-KaWai-[Lai,-K-W-A];
Cell-Biology-International. 2004; 28(10): 661-673.
Journal-of-Economic-Animal. 2004; 8(2): 74-77.
Kim-KiHwan; Lee-EuiJung; Kim-Kilhyoun; Han-SoYeop; Jhon-GilJa
Nutrition-. 2004; 20(4): 394-401.
OBJECTIVE: The immunomodulatory effect of deer antler, which is used as traditional medicine, has been known, but the active component of antlers from Cervus elaphus has not been identified. In this study, we identified the immunomodulator from C. elaphus and examined its biological activities on the immune system.
METHODS: To identify an immunomodulator, we used bioassay-guided
fractionation after silica gel column chromatography. Structural analysis
was performed with one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance
techniques and tandem mass
The effects of deer antler velvet extract or powder supplementation on aerobic power, erythropoiesis, and muscular strength and endurance characteristics.
Sleivert G, Burke V, Palmer C, Walmsley A, Gerrard D, Haines S, Littlejohn R.
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5A3.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):251-65.
To determine the effects of deer antler velvet on maximal aerobic performance and the trainability of muscular strength and endurance, 38 active males were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either deer antler velvet extract (n = 12), powder (n = 13), or placebo groups (n = 13). Subjects were tested prior to beginning supplementation and a 10-week strength program, and immediately post-training. All subjects were measured for circulating levels of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor, erythropoietin, red cell mass, plasma volume, and total blood volume. Additionally, muscular strength, endurance, and VO2max were determined. All groups improved 6 RM strength equivalently (41 +/- 26%, p < .001), but there was a greater increase in isokinetic knee extensor strength (30 +/- 21% vs. 13 +/- 15%, p = .04) and endurance (21 +/- 19% vs. 7 +/- 12%, p = .02) in the powder compared to placebo group. There were no endocrine, red cell mass or VO2max changes in any group. These findings do not support an erythropoetic or aerobic ergogenic effect of deer antler velvet. Further, the inconsistent findings regarding the effects of deer antler velvet powder supplementation on the development of strength suggests that further work is required to test the robustness of the observation that this supplement enhances the strength training response and to ensure this observation is not a type I error.
Elk velvet antler in rheumatoid arthritis: phase II trial.
Allen M, Oberle K, Grace M, Russell A.
Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. email@example.com
Biol Res Nurs. 2002 Jan;3(3):111-8.
The purpose of this phase II clinical trial was to examine safety of elk velvet antler taken concurrently with rheumatoid arthritis medications and to determine efficacy by dose to enable sample size estimation and dose standardization for a larger study. Forty patients with stage II rheumatoid arthritis were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 arms of 10 patients each. One group received placebo and the other 3 groups received 2, 4, or 6 capsules (215 mg) of elk velvet antler with appropriate placebos to total 6 capsules daily. All subjects continued to take their arthritis medications. Outcome variables were reported adverse events and health status. At 1 month, there were no significant differences between groups in number of adverse events or health status. The greatest improvement was in the 6 elk velvet antler group, the least was in the placebo group. Differences were not statistically significant. It was concluded that elk velvet antler can be taken safely in conjunction with a number of rheumatoid arthritis medications and should be studied further to assess efficacy.
Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing.
Zhou QL, Guo YJ, Wang LJ, Wang Y, Liu YQ, Wang Y, Wang BX.
Research Centre of New Drug, Changchun College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.
AIM: To study the effects of velvet antler (VA) total
polypeptides (VATP) and VA polypeptides, VAP-A, VAP-B, and VAP-C on
proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precusors. METHODS: Chondrocytes
(rabbit and human fetus) and osteoblast precusors (chick embryo) were
incubated in the culture medium containing VATP or VAP-A, VAP-B, and
VAP-C. [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA was measured. Fracture healing-promoting
action of VATP was determined in rats. RESULTS: VATP 50-200 mg.L-1 and
VAP-B 12.5, 25, and 50 mg.L-1 showed most marked proliferation-promoting
activity for rabbit costed chondrocytes and increased incorporation
of [3H]TdR from (73 +/- 9) Bq (control group) to (272 +/- 55), (327
+/- 38), and (415 +/- 32) Bq, respectively (P < 0.01). The activity
of VAP-A was weaker than that of VAP-B, and VAP-C had no activity. VATP
10 and 20 mg.kg-1 by local injection into the cross-section fracture
area accelerated healing of radial fracture. The healing rate of VATP-treated
group was higher (75%) than that of control group (25%) (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: VATP accelerated fracture healing by stimulating proliferation
of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors.
Comparative analysis of contents of amino acid, total
phospholipid, calcium and phosphorus in sika deer velvet bone slices
with blood and without blood.
Wang-YanMei; Chu-LiWei; Wang-YanHong; Wang-ShuLi; Wang-YM;
Chu-LW; Wang-YH; Wang-SL
Journal-of-Economic-Animal. 2003, 7: 2, 21-23; 8 ref.
Influence of powdered velvet antler on growth and intestinal
organ development in Sprague-Dawley Rats.
Sung-HG; Kim-DK; Shin-HT
Journal-of-Animal-Science-and-Technology. 2003, 45: 5,
749-758; 33 ref.
Modification of concanavalin A-dependent proliferation by phosphatidylcholines isolated from deer antler, Cervus elaphus.
Kim-KiHwan; Lee-EuiJung; Kim-Kilhyoun;
Han-SoYeop; Jhon-GilJa; Kim-KH; Lee
Nutrition. 2004, 20: 4, 394-401; 29 ref.
CONCLUSIONS: These data collectively
suggest that phosphatidylcholines with saturated fatty acyl chains are
immunostimulating factors. They may modify the proliferation of known
mitogens. Further, chain length and saturation of the fatty acids may
play important roles in the proliferation of spleen cells.
Cells in regenerating deer antler cartilage provide
a microenvironment that supports osteoclast differentiation.
Faucheux-C; Nesbitt-SA; Horton-MA; Price-JS
Journal-of-Experimental-Biology. 2001, 204: 3, 443-455;
Lysophosphatidylcholine derived from deer antler extract suppresses hyphal transition in Candida albicans through MAP kinase pathway.
Min-Juyoung; Lee-YounJin; Kim-YoungAh; Park-HyunSook;
Han-SoYeop; Jhon -GilJa; Choi-Wonja; Min-J; Lee-YJ; Kim-YA; Park-HS;
Han-SY; Jhon-GJ; Choi-W
2001, 1531: 1-2, 77-89; 35 ref.
A study on the intake patterns of health food of the
elderly aged over 60 years in the Chuncheon area.
Rhee-HeeSeoup; Lee-HaiSook; Yee-JungAe; Kang-KeumJee;
Rhee-HS; Lee-HS; Yee-JA; Kang-KJ
Deer antler : scientific review. Les bois de cerf : revue de litterature scientifique.
Crigel-MH; Balligand-M; Heinen-E
Annales-de-Medecine-Veterinaire. 2001, 145: 1, 25-38;
Toxicological evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet powder. Part I: acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats.
Zhang-H; Wanwimolruk-S; Coville-PF; Schofield-JC; Williams-G;
Food-and-Chemical-Toxicology. 2000, 38: 11, 985-990; 13 ref.
Potential toxic effects of acute and subchronic dosage
regimens of deer velvet powder have been assessed in rats following
OECD guidelines. In the acute study, rats of both sexes were exposed
to a single dose of 2 g/kg body weight. There was no mortality or other
signs of toxicity during 14 days' observation. Furthermore, no significant
alteration either in relative organ weights or their histology was discernible
at terminal autopsy. In the 90-day subchronic study, deer velvet was
administered in 1 g/kg daily doses by gavage to rats. A control group
of rats received water only. There was no effect on body weight, food
However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the group meanrelative liver weight (3.52±0.30 vs 3.81±0.26 g/100 g body weight) of deer velvet-treated and control male rats. The gross necropsy and pathological examination of rats treated with deer velvet did not reveal any abnormalities in tissue morphology. Based on these results, it may be concluded that rats had no deer velvet treatment-related toxicological and histopathological abnormalities at the doses administered, despite the observed minor changes in liver weight.
Cells in regenerating deer antler cartilage provide
a microenvironment that
Faucheux-C; Nesbitt-SA; Horton-MA; Price-JS
Journal-of-Experimental-Biology. 2001, 204: 3, 443-455; Many ref.
Lysophosphatidylcholine derived from deer antler extract
Min-Juyoung; Lee-YounJin; Kim-YoungAh; Park-HyunSook;
A family of 2-lysophosphatidylcholines (lyso-PCs) was
isolated from deerantler extract, guided exclusively by hyphal transition
inhibitory activity in Candida albicans. Structural determination of
the isolated lyso-PCs by spectroscopic methods, including infrared spectroscopy,
1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, 2D correlation spectroscopy
NMR, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry,
confirmed that the natural products were composed of at least 4 different
The major lyso-PCs were confirmed as 1-stearoyl-, 1-oleoyl-,
1-linoleoyl- and 1-palmitoyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholines.
Lyso-PC specifically suppressed the morphogenic transition from yeast
to hyphae in C. albicans, without affecting the growth of either yeast
or hyphae. Lyso-PC exerted hyphal transition that suppressed activity
in the broad spectrum of the Candida species, such as C. albicans, C.
krusei, C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis. Northern analysis indicated
Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in adult
Ditchkoff-SS; Spicer-LJ; Masters-RE; Lochmiller-RL
Our understanding of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
in cervids has been limited mostly to its effects on antler development
in red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow
deer (Dama dama),and pudu (Pudu puda). Although IGF-I has been found
to play a critical role in reproductive function of other mammals, its
role in reproduction of deer is unknown. The objectives of the present
study were to determine if serum levels of IGF-I change during the breeding
season, assess whether age influences serum IGF-I, compare levels of
IGF-I measured during and following the breeding season, and determine
if IGF-I is associated with
Potential uses of velvet antler as nutraceuticals,
functional and medical
2000, 2: 3, 5-23;
Velvet antlers have been used as Oriental medicine for many centuries.Traditional medical reports and clinical observations from the Eastern world convincingly show that velvet antler is biologically active.However, little information is available on chemical and biological efficacy of antler products in the West due to the incomplete understanding of the uses and pharmacological properties of velvet antlers. To make antler products acceptable as nutraceuticals and functional foods in the West, antler research has been conducted to isolate and characterize the chemical and biological properties of velvet antlers. The chemical composition of antler was determined in four sections (tip, upper, middle, and base). Contents of dry matter, collagen, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium increased (P<0.05), and those of protein and lipid decreased (P<0.05) downward from the tip to the base.
The concentrations of uronic acid, sulfated glycosaminoglycan
(GAG), and sialic acid decreased (P<0.05) downward. Amino acid and
fatty acid contents, expressed as percentage of total protein and lipid,
respectively, also varied (P<0.05) among sections. The yield of chondroitin
sulfate (CS) was approximately six fold greater in the cartilaginous
(tip and upper) sections than in the bony (middle and base) sections.
In addition to CS, the antler sections contained small amounts of keratan
sulfate (KS), hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate. Two proteoglycans
associated with GAGs were also extracted from the cartilaginous section;
a large aggregated proteoglycan with CS and KS and small molecules of
decorin. Water soluble extracts rich in GAG stimulated
Effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone
Li-ChunYi; Littlejohn-RP; Suttie-JM; Li-CY
Journal-of-Experimental-Zoology. 1999, 284: 1, 82-90; 27 ref.
The aim of this study was to use cell culture techniques
to investigate how testosterone and IGF1 affects the proliferation of
antlerogenic cells from the four ossification stages of pedicle/antler
in vitro. The results showed that in serum-free medium IGF1 stimulated
the proliferation of antlerogenic cells from all four ossification stages
(intramembraneous (IMO), transistional (OPC), pedicle endrochondral
(pECO) and antler enfochondral (aECO)) in a dose-dependent manner. In
However, in the presence of IGF1, testosterone increased
proliferation of the antlerogenic cells from the IMO and the OPC stages
(pedicle tissue), and reduced proliferation of the antlerogenic cells
from transformation point (TP) and aECO stages (antler tissue). Therefore,
the results from the present in vitro study support the in vivo findings
that androgen hormones stimulate pedicle formation but inhibit antler
growth. The change in the mitogenic effects of testosterone on antlerogenic
cells from positive to negative occurs approximately at the change in
ossification type from OPC to pECO. Therefore, these results reinforce
Kameyama-Y; Takahashi-R; Ito-M; Maru-R; Ishijima-Y
Animal-Science-Journal. 2000, 71: 2, 137-142; 23 ref.
Annual changes in the concentration of serum testosterone (T) in sika deer stags were examined. The relationships between T concentration and the size of testis, and between T concentration and the antler cycle were also evaluated. T concentration increased between July and September, then decreased between October and November. The highest T concentration was noted in September or October. During the period from November to the following July, T concentration remained low. The volume of the testis and scrotal circumference showed changes similar to those in the T concentration. The testis volume showed clearer seasonal changes than those of the scrotal circumference. Shedding of velvets was observed during the period of high T concentrations. It is concluded that there are distinct annual changes in the blood T concentration in sika deer stags, which are related to the annual changes in testis volumes, scrotal circumferences and antlers.
Antinarcotic effects of the velvet antler water extract on morphine in mice.
Kim-HackSeang; Lim-HwaKyung; Park-WooKyu; Kim-HS; Lim-HK; Park-WK
Journal-of-Ethnopharmacology. 1999, 66: 1, 41-49; 35 ref.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinarcotic
effects of velvet antler water extract (VAWE) from Cervus elaphus on
morphine in mice. Morphine-induced analgesic action was measured by
the tail-flick method. Morphine-induced hyperactivity and reverse tolerance
were evidenced by measuring the enhanced ambulatory activity using a
tilting -type ambulometer. Dopamine (DA) receptor supersensitivity in
mice displaying morphine-induced reverse tolerance was evidenced by
Effect of water-soluble extract from antler of wapiti
(Cervus elaphus) on
Sunwoo-HH; Nakano-T; Sim-JS
Canadian-Journal-of-Animal-Science. 1997, 77: 2, 343-345; 7 ref.
Water-soluble extracts were prepared from the tip sections of antlers of 4 -year-old wapiti stags, and the effect of the extract on the growth of bovine skin fibroblasts in culture was examined. The results showed the presence of growth promoting factor(s) in the antler extract. The stimulation of cell growth was found to be dose-dependent (P<0.05).
Glycosaminoglycans from growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus
Canadian-Journal-of-Animal-Science. 1997, 77: 4, 715-721; 33 ref.
The emerging wapiti industry in North America is based
largely on markets for velvet antlers which are used in oriental medicine.
Despite the economic opportunity, enthusiasm has been dampened by incomplete
understanding of the chemical and pharmacological properties of velvet
antler. This study characterizes polysaccharide constituents of glycosaminoglycans
in growing antler of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Glycosaminoglycans were
isolated from four sections (tip, upper, middle and base) of growing
antlers, and were studied using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, gel
electrophoresis, enzymic digestion and gel chromatography. The tip and
upper sections of the antler which are rich in cartilaginous tissues
contained chondroitin sulfate as a major glycosaminoglycan with small
amounts of hyaluronic acid. In the middle and base sections containing
bone and bone marrow, chondroitin sulfate was